Since the times of al-Radi, Nahj-ul-Balagha has been a subject of study and
interpretation. As reported earlier al Sayyid al-Murtada's daughter used to
narrate her uncle's work, and the book had become a subject of study in
academic circles. The Kitab nameh yi Nahj-ul-Balagha published in 1359
Sham./1980 in Persian from Iran, enlists 370 titles of various commentaries,
translations, selections and books dealing with its madarik and masadir
(sources) in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, English, Gujrati and French.
This bibliography cannot be considered to be complete in any way, for it is
compiled in Iran and the compiler depended on secondary sources such as
al-Dhari'ah, Kakh-e dilawiz, Nuqaba' al-bashar, etc., as he had no access to
the works in other languages, particularly Indian languages. A large number
of titles could have been added to this list with some research in the
languages unfamiliar to the Persians. A selected bibliography on the basis of
this Kitab-nameh and two other books was compiled and published in al-Tawhid,
vol. II, no. 2.
Selected Commentaries on Nahj-ul-Balagha
In later centuries, numerous commentaries were written in Arabic and
Persian, details of which can be found in the Kitabnameh-yi Nahj-ul-Balagha
and al-Tawhid (English), vol. II, no.2. In addition to these several other
works were compiled with regard to the sources of the contents of Nahj-ul-Balagha
in Arabic, Urdu and Persian, among which the following can be
- Alam Nahj-ul-Balagha by al-Sayyid 'Ali ibn Nasir al-'Alawi,
reportedly a contemporary of al-Radi. Firstly, this book
refers to some other commentaries, which means it may not
be the first. Secondly, its style is not that of the fifth
century and the book may belong to a later period.
- Ma'arij Nahj-ul-Balagha by Shaykh Abu al-Hasan Abu al-Qasim
Zayd ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali al:Bayhaqi al-Nishaburi, popularly
known as Farid-e Khurasan (d. 565/1169). This sharh is supposed
to be based on the copy of Nahj-ul-Balagha that was approved
by al-Radi himself.
- Hada'iq al-haqa'iq: al-'isbah fi Sharh Nahj-ul-Balagha by
Abu al-Hasan Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Bayhaqi al-Nishaburi,
known as Qutb al-Din al-Kundari, compiled in 576/1180. Its
one manuscript is in Madrasah-ye Fadiliyyah, Mashhad.
- and 5. Al-Ma'arij fi Sharh Nahj-ul-Balagha (also called al
-Mi'raj) and Minhaj al-bara'ah (written in 556/1170) by Qutb
al-Din al-Rawandi (d. 573/1177).
- An incomplete commentary by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (543 or
44-606/1149-50-1209), mentioned in Ta'rikh al-hukamd
by Jamal al-Din al-Qifti.
- A commentary attributed to 'Abd al Jabbar al-Mu'tazili, and
also three other scholars contemporary of al-Shaykh al-Tusi
- Sharh by Diya' al-Din Abu al-Rida Fadl Allah ibn 'Ali
al-Rawandi (d. after i58/1065-66).
- Sharh 'Izz al-Din ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu'tazili(d. 656/1258).
This is the most famous commentary on which several
commentaries have been written. This has been translated into
Persian, French and most probably in Urdu. Its selection
Iltiqat al-durar al-nukhab was compiled in 1283/1866-67.
Commentaries written on it number at least fifteen, among the
authors of which are such eminent names as Ahmad ibn Tawus
(d. 637/1239), Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani (d. 1107/i695-96),
Shaykh Yusuf al-Bahrani (1186!1772-3), Shaykh Muhsin Karim
'Abd al-Husayn ibn Musa, Mahmud Mallah and others. Critiques
of his commentary were mainly directed against his position
regarding the caliphate. Though Ibn Abi al-Hadid recognized
al-Khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyyah as genuinely attributed to al-'Imam
'Ali (as), he, however, tried to interpret it in accordance
with Sunni belief in the legitimacy of al-Khilafat al-Rashidah.
- Al-Sharh al-kabir by Ibn al-Maytham al-Bahrani (d. 679/1280).
Ibn al-Maytham wrote other commentaries on the book also viz.
Mishah al-saliEfn and its abridgement Mukhtasar Misbah al-
salikin, and Minhaj al-'arifin, a commentary on Mi'at kalimah
li-'Amir al-Mu'minin by al Jahiz.
- Al-Dibaj al mudi' fi sharh Nahj-ul-Balagha li al-Radi by
Imam al-Mu'ayyad bi Allah Yahya ibn Hamzah al-'Alawi al-Yamani
(d. 749/1348-9) which deals with the difficult words occurring
- Mulhaq Nahj-ul-Balagha, a commentary written around the
beginning of the eighth/ fourteenth century by Ahmad ibn
Yahya, a manuscript of which copied in 729/1328-29 is in
the Kitabkhaneh-yi Astaneh-yi Quds Ridawi, Mashhad.
- Sharh al-nafa'is by an unknown Sunni author written in
759/1357-58 available in the Kitabkhaneh-yi Astaneh-yi
Quds Ridawi Mashhad.
- Sharh by Kamal al-Din 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim
al-'Ata'iqi al-Hilli compiled in 770/1368-69.
- Minhaj al-fasahah by Kamal al-Din Husayn ibn Khwajah Sharaf
al-Din 'Abd al-Haqq al-'Ardebili Ilahi (d. 950il543-44).
- Minhaj al-wilayah by Mulla 'Abd al-Baqi al-Sufi al-Tabrizi
al-Khattat, known as Danishmand (d. 1039/1629-30).
- Sharh by Abu Talib Taj al-Din 'Ali ibn Anjab, known as Ibn
Sa'id (d. 674/l275-6).
- Sharh by al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al Saffati
- Al-Tuhfat al-'Aliyyah fisharah Nahj-ul-Balaghat at-Haydariyyah
by Muhammad ibn Habib Allah, grandson of Khalifah Sultan,
compiled ih 881/l476.
- Al-Mawdhib al-Ilahiyyah by al-Sayyid Afsah al-Din Muhammad
al-Shirazi (the 9th century H.).
Commentaries available in Persian
Commentaries available in Arabic
- Rida Ustadi, Bahthi kutah piramun-e Nahj-ul-Balagha wa madarik-e an (1396/1976).
- Kitabnameh-yi Nahj-ul-Balagha by the above-mentioned author (1359 Sham./ 1980).
- Barrasi-yi Nahj al-baldghah wa asnad-e an by Sayyid Jawad Mustafawi.
- Pizhuhishi dar asnad wa madarik-e Nahj-ul-Balagha by Sayyid Muhammad Ja'fari (1356 Sham./ 1977).
A number of translations and commentaries on the Imam's letter to Malik
al-'Ashtar have been written in Persian which number around fifty, of
which some were in verse. The authors of some of these shuruh are persons
of eminence like Mulla Muhammad Salih Rawghani, Muhammad Husayn Furughi
Dhaka' al-Mulk (d. 1325/1907-08), Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Furughi (1257-1321
Sham./ 1878-1942), Ahmad ibn Hafiz Qatil Kirmani, known as Adib (d. 1329/
1911), Sharif al-'Amili, and al-'Allamah al-Majlisi (d. 1111/1699-1700).
The complete text of Nahj-ul-Balagha was also translated in verse many a
time. In Arabic, too, the letter to Malik al-'Ashtar was commented upon by
- Mustatrafat Nahj al-baldghah by Shaykh Fakhr al-Din al-Turayhi (d. 1085/1674).
- Masadir Nahj-ul-Balagha by 'Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni al-Khatib, in four volumes (1386/1966-67).
- Madarik Nahj-ul-Balagha by al Shaykh Hadi Kashif al Ghita' (d.1361/1942), printed in 1354/1935.
- Madarik Nahj-ul-Balagha by al Shaykh 'Abd Allah Ni'mah, published from Beirut
- Mustadrak Nahj-ul-Balagha by Shaykh Kashif al Ghita, printed in 1354/1935.
- Masadir Nahj-ul-Balagha by Hibat al-Din al Shahristani (1301-1386/1883-84-1966-67),
- Ma huwa Nahj-ul-Balagha by al Sayyid Hibat al-Din al-Shahristani, compiled in 1352/1933-34 and printed the
same year. Also translated into Persian and published twice.
Al-Khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyyah had been also attracting the attention of Arab
commentators and Persian translators. Nahj-ul-Balagha's Persian translations
started to appear much earlier than the Safawids came to power. Husayn ibn
Sharaf al-Din Ardebili, a contemporary of Shah Isma'il Safawi, translated
Nahj-ul-Balagha which was published in 1355/1936 with the Arabic text.
Among the popular Persian translations we can name the ones by Sayyid 'Ali
Naqi Fayd al-'Islam, Jawad Fadil, and Asad Allah Mubashshiri. Among the early
translations one was done by Nizam al-Din 'Ali ibn al-Hasan al-Gilani, which
was completed in 1036/1626-27. The earliest Persian translation is by Mulla
Fath Allah al-Kashani (d. 988/1580-81) under the title Tanbih al-ghafilin, a
third printing of which came out of the press in 1313/1895-96. A popular
revolutionary leader and scholar Ayatullah Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani (d. 1399/
1979) also translated Nahj-ul-Balagha and published it with his commentary
in 1326 Sham./1947.
Urdu translations of Nahj-ul-Balagha
English Translation of Nahj-ul-Balagha
- al-'Isha'ah by Sayyid Awlad Hasan ibn Muhammad Hasan Amruhawi
(d. 1338/1919-20), Nayrang-e fasahat by Dhakir Husayn Akhtar
Dehlawi, and three other translations by Zafar Mahdi ibn Sayyid
Warith Husayn Ja'isi, Ra'is Ahmad Ja'fari (a Sunni author),
and Mufti Ja'far Husayn. All these translations were accompanied
by notes and comments.
- I'jaz Husayn Badayuni (d. 1350/1931-32) compiled a book to
explain difficult words of the book under the name Hall-e
- Imtiyaz 'Ali Khan 'Arshi's Istinad-e Nahj-ul-Balagha has
already been discussed. Aqa Buzurg al-Tehrani, in al-
Dhari'ah ila tasanif al-Shi'ah, has referred to another
Tarjumah wa sharh in Urdu by Sayyid 'Ali Azhar Khajwi al-
Hindi (d. 1352/1933-34).
- Sayyid Sibt al-Hasan al-Hanswi's work Minhaj Nahj-ul-Balagha is rated
among the best of its kind in Urdu. A few years ago Mahmud
Husayn Qaysar Amruhawi published a lengthy article in many
parts in an Urdu journal on the sources of Nahj-ul-Balagha
and the authenticity of the ascription of its contents to
al-' Imam 'Ali (as). There are, of course, a number of articles
and booklets compiled about Nahj-ul-Balagha in Urdu.
- Quid-e-Millat Marhoom Allama Mufti Jaffar Hussain
- Allama Zeeshan Haider Jawadi Marhoom
- Translated by Askari Jafri published by Islamic Seminary
Publications. It is in 12th Edition, published in 1999 with